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Convergent Research

CASFER transformative engineered system is a modular, distributed, decarbonized nitrogen-based fertilizer (NBF) production process that implements waste and renewable energy for precise NBF production.


CASFER will capture activated nitrogen from waste streams — such as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and run-off — and convert it into precise NBFs, passing them directly to the end users/farmers.


To balance the US NBF consumption, CASFER will also advance decarbonized NBF production from air, water, and renewable energy.


Convergence-Based Technology


  • Develop precise, commercial-like NBFs from waste streams. CASFER will employ an Organic but Synthetic Approach (OSA) to NBFs, with ingredients, predictability, and reliability designed to stimulate plant growth.

  • Deliver new technologies for the recovery and recycling of NBFs using byproducts from untapped sources of waste such as concentrated animal feeding operations, municipal wastewater treatment plants, and fertilizer run-off

  • Create novel synthetic methods that use waste and sustainable resources such as air, water, and renewable energy for virgin DC-NBF production.

CASFER technologies bring the convergence of nanotechnology, electrochemical science, data science, biology, chemistry, environmental and agricultural science, health science, economics, policy, and engineering.


The CASFER engineered system integrates technologies and components from three center-coordinated research thrusts.


Thrust 1: Advanced Modeling, Monitoring and Process Control


Thrust 2: Capture and Recycling of NBFs


Modular and Distributed NBF Production and Delivery 



The CASFER testbeds are mobile units, or systems assembled in trailers or skid-mobile units. The testbeds integrate the technologies for the different thrusts, separations, catalysts, reactors, sensors, and control algorithms.

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